EXPLAINER: 2023 tax credits for EVs will boost their appeal

Dec 29, 2022, 9:02 AM | Updated: Jan 4, 2023, 3:36 pm
An electric vehicle charges at an EVgo fast charging station in Detroit, Wednesday, Nov. 16, 2022. ...

An electric vehicle charges at an EVgo fast charging station in Detroit, Wednesday, Nov. 16, 2022. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

(AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

WASHINGTON (AP) — Starting Jan. 1, many Americans will qualify for a tax credit of up to $7,500 for buying an electric vehicle. The credit, part of changes enacted in the Inflation Reduction Act, is designed to spur EV sales and reduce greenhouse emissions.

But a complex web of requirements, including where vehicles and batteries must be manufactured to qualify, is casting some doubt on whether anyone can receive the full $7,500 credit next year.

The Treasury Department is rolling out more information on which vehicles qualify and how individuals and businesses can access credit beginning in 2023. One big loophole that allows tax credits for EVs purchased for “commercial” use, such as leasing or ride-share, even if they are foreign-made is drawing the ire of Sen. Joe Manchin, D-W.Va., who says it could circumvent the intent of the law to favor American manufacturing.

For at least the first two months of 2023, though, a delay in some of Treasury’s rules will likely make the full credit temporarily available to consumers who meet certain income and price limits.

The new law also provides a smaller credit for people who buy a used EV.

Certain EV brands that were eligible for a separate tax credit that began in 2010 and that will end this year may not be eligible for the new credit. Several EV models made by Kia, Hyundai and Audi, for example, won’t qualify because they are manufactured outside North America.

The new tax credit, which lasts until 2032, is intended to make zero-emission vehicles affordable to more people. Here is a closer look at it.

___

WHAT’S NEW FOR 2023?

The credit of up to $7,500 will be offered to people who buy certain new electric vehicles as well as some plug-in gas-electric hybrids and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. For people who buy a used vehicle that runs on battery power, a $4,000 credit will be available.

But the question of which vehicles and buyers will qualify for the credits is complicated and will remain uncertain until Treasury issues the proposed rules in March.

What’s known so far is that to qualify for the credit, new EVs must be made in North America. In addition, caps on vehicle prices and buyer incomes are intended to disqualify wealthier buyers.

Starting in March, complex provisions will also govern battery components. Forty percent of battery minerals will have to come from North America or a country with a U.S. free trade agreement or be recycled in North America. (That threshold will eventually go to 80%.)

And 50% of the battery parts will have to be made or assembled in North America, eventually rising to 100%.

Starting in 2025, battery minerals cannot come from a “foreign entity of concern,” mainly China and Russia. Battery parts cannot be sourced in those countries starting in 2024 — a troublesome obstacle for the auto industry because numerous EV metals and parts now come from China.

There also are battery-size requirements.

___

WHICH VEHICLES ARE ELIGIBLE?

Because of the many remaining uncertainties, that’s not entirely clear. However, the Treasury Department released an initial list of vehicles that meet the requirements to claim the new clean vehicle tax credit beginning Jan. 1, including models from Chrysler, Ford, Jeep, Lincoln, Nissan and Rivian. More vehicles will be added to the list in the weeks and months to come.

The Energy Department also maintains a list of qualifying EVs.

General Motors and Tesla have the most EVs assembled in North America. Each also makes batteries in the U.S. But because of the requirements for where batteries, minerals and parts must be manufactured, it’s likely that buyers of those vehicles would initially receive only half the tax credit, $3,750. GM says its eligible EVs should qualify for the $3,750 credit by March, with the full credit available in 2025.

Until Treasury issues its rules, though, the requirements governing where minerals and parts must be sourced will be waived. This will allow eligible buyers to receive the full $7,500 tax incentive for qualifying models early in 2023.

___

WHAT ABOUT PRICE?

To qualify, new electric sedans cannot have a sticker price above $55,000. Pickup trucks, SUVs and vans can’t be over $80,000. This will disqualify two higher-priced Tesla models. Though Tesla’s top sellers, the models 3 and Y, will be eligible, with options, those vehicles might exceed the price limits.

Kelley Blue Book says the average EV now costs over $65,000, though lower-priced models are coming.

___

WILL I QUALIFY FOR THE CREDITS?

It depends on your income. For new EVs, buyers cannot have an adjusted gross income above $150,000 if single, $300,000 if filing jointly and $225,000 if head of a household.

For used EVs, buyers cannot earn more than $75,000 if single, $150,000 if filing jointly and $112,500 if head of household.

___

HOW WILL THE CREDIT BE PAID?

At first, it will be applied to your 2023 tax return, which you file in 2024. Starting in 2024, consumers can transfer the credit to a dealership to lower the vehicle price at purchase.

___

WILL THE CREDITS BOOST EV SALES?

Yes, but it probably will take a few years, says Mike Fiske, associate director for S&P Global Mobility. The credit may cause a bump in sales early next year because of Treasury’s delay in issuing the stricter requirements. But most automakers are now selling all the EVs they build and cannot make more because of shortages of parts, including computer chips.

And automakers may have trouble certifying the sources of battery minerals and parts, a requirement for buyers to receive the full credit. Automakers have been scrambling to move more EV supply chains to the U.S.

___

HOW DOES THE USED-EV CREDIT WORK?

Consumers can receive tax credits of up to $4,000 — or 30% of the vehicle price, whichever is less — for buying EVs that are at least two years old. But the used EV must cost less than $25,000 — a tall order given the starting prices for most EVs on the market. A search on Autotrader.com shows that the Chevy Bolt, the Nissan Leaf and other relatively economical used EVs are listed at $26,000 or more for models dating back to 2019.

On the other hand, used EVs need not be made in North America or comply with the battery-sourcing requirements. That means that, for instance, a 2022 Kia EV6 that’s ineligible for the new-vehicle credit because it’s made in South Korea can qualify for a used-car credit if its price falls below $25,000.

“The real effects where these tax credits will have a big impact will be in the 2026-to-2032 period — a few years into the future — as automakers gear up and volumes increase,” said Chris Harto, a senior policy analyst for Consumer Reports magazine.

___

WHY IS THE GOVERNMENT OFFERING THE CREDITS?

The credits are part of roughly $370 billion in spending on clean energy — America’s largest investment to fight climate change — that was signed into law in August by President Joe Biden. EVs now make up about 5% of U.S. new-vehicle sales; Biden has set a goal of 50% by 2030.

Sales of EVs have been climbing, particularly as California and other states have moved to phase out gas-powered cars. The rise of lower-cost competitors to Tesla, such as the Chevy Equinox, with an expected base price of around $30,000, are expected to broaden the EVs’ reach to middle-class households. S&P Global Mobility expects EVs’ share of auto sales to reach 8% next year, 15% by 2025 and 37% by 2030.

___

COULD REQUIREMENTS BE EASED TO MAKE MORE EVs ELIGIBLE?

It appears that may happen. Some U.S. allies are upset over North American manufacturing requirements that disqualify EVs made in Europe or South Korea.

The requirements knock Hyundai and Kia out of the credits, at least in the short term. They plan to build new EV and battery plants in Georgia, but those won’t open until 2025. European Union countries fear that the tax credits could make their automakers move factories to the U.S.

There is a loophole, however. The law appears to exempt commercial vehicles from the North America assembly and domestic battery mineral and parts requirements. That means that rental car and leasing companies with huge fleets as well as EVs used fuller-time for ride-share such as Uber and Lyft could be eligible for up to $7,500 in tax credits even for foreign-made EVs. A fact sheet released by Treasury on Thursday affirms it would allow exemptions for commercial vehicles, which the department says it must do based on the wording of the law.

That move drew the anger of Manchin, a key vote in passing the Inflation Reduction Act, who on Thursday accused the Biden administration of bending to the desires of foreign countries. He said the exemptions undermine the law’s intent to “bring our energy and manufacturing supply chains onshore to protect our national security, reduce our dependence on foreign adversaries and create jobs right here in the United States.”

Manchin said he would introduce legislation in the coming weeks that “prevents this dangerous interpretation from Treasury from moving forward.”

___

ARE THERE CREDITS FOR CHARGING STATIONS?

If you install an EV charger at home, credits may be available. The new law revives a federal tax credit that had expired in 2021; it provides 30% of the cost of hardware and installation, up to $1,000. It adds a requirement that the charger must be in a low-income or non-urban area. Businesses that install new EV chargers in those areas can receive tax credits of as much as 30% — up to $100,000 per charger.

Residential EV chargers can range in cost from $200 to $1,000; installation can add several more hundred dollars.

___

SO SHOULD I BUY NOW OR WAIT?

That’s entirely a personal decision.

If you’ve grown tired of volatile gasoline prices and are considering an EV, you might want to go ahead. Buying a qualifying EV in January or February could net you the full $7,500 tax break before more stringent requirements take effect in March. Additional state credits also may be available.

But if you’re still on the fence, there’s no urgency. Consumers who rush to buy now, when relatively few qualifying EVs are available, may face dealer price markups. Within a few years, technology will improve, and more EVs will qualify for full credits.

___

WHERE CAN I FIND MORE INFORMATION?

The Treasury Department on Thursday released several frequently asked questions documents for individual and commercial customers on the clean vehicle tax credits meant to help them understand how to access the various tax incentives.

The department also released a white paper explaining the anticipated direction that it is taking ahead of the proposed rule rollout.

____

Krisher reported from Detroit. Associated Press writer Fatima Hussein contributed to this report.

Copyright © The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

AP

Associated Press

Reports say 2022 was good for Nevada casinos, Vegas tourism

LAS VEGAS (AP) — The year 2022 was good for gambling and tourism in Nevada, where winnings at casinos statewide set calendar year records and Las Vegas visitor tallies nearly reached levels before the coronavirus pandemic. “Las Vegas enjoyed a robust recovery trajectory across core tourism indicators in 2022,” the regional Convention and Visitors Authority […]
16 hours ago
Elliot Morehead, 16 of Sioux Falls, tells a House Health and Human Services committee Tuesday, Jan....
Associated Press

S. Dakota lawmakers push bill to bar transgender youth care

PIERRE, S.D. (AP) — A state House committee voted Tuesday to advance a bill that would ban gender-affirming care for transgender youth in South Dakota. Supporters argued a bill barring youth from accessing puberty blockers, hormones and surgery would protect adolescents from irreversible damage, while opponents argued it only blocks them from becoming their authentic […]
16 hours ago
Associated Press

GM conditionally OKs $650M Nevada lithium mine investment

RENO, Nev. (AP) — General Motors Co. has conditionally agreed to invest $650 million in Lithium Americas Corp. in a deal that will give GM exclusive access to the first phase of a mine planned near the Nevada-Oregon line with the largest known source of lithium in the U.S. The equity investment the companies announced […]
16 hours ago
FILE - Travelers wade through the line to drop off bags at the Southwest Airlines check-in counter ...
Associated Press

Lawmakers aim to raise penalties for US airline disruptions

Senators who want to impose tougher penalties when U.S. airlines strand or delay passengers say they finally might be able to turn their ideas into law because of outrage over debacles like the one at Southwest Airlines in December. Democrats Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut and Edward Markey of Massachusetts said Tuesday they will again offer […]
16 hours ago
FILE - President Joe Biden, right, at the top of a meeting with congressional leaders to discuss le...
Associated Press

Biden, McCarthy, once breakfast mates, wrangle over US debt

WASHINGTON (AP) — Not so long ago, Joe Biden and Republican leader Kevin McCarthy used to talk things over at breakfast in Biden’s vice presidential home at the Naval Observatory. Biden was intent in those days on “keeping up relations with the opposition party,” as he writes in his memoir, and the new House majority […]
16 hours ago
Associated Press

Vermont lawmakers mull bills to protect abortion providers

Vermont lawmakers are taking testimony on a pair of bills that aim to protect health care workers who provide abortions and gender-affirming health care in Vermont from legal and disciplinary action from states that limit or ban those practices. The bills were introduced seven months after the U.S. Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade and […]
16 hours ago

Sponsored Articles

...
Day & Night Air Conditioning, Heating and Plumbing

Prep the plumbing in your home just in time for the holidays

With the holidays approaching, it's important to know when your home is in need of heating and plumbing updates before more guests start to come around.
(Desert Institute for Spine Care photo)...
DESERT INSTITUTE FOR SPINE CARE

Why DISC is world renowned for back and neck pain treatments

Fifty percent of Americans and 90% of people at least 50 years old have some level of degenerative disc disease.
(Photo via MLB's Arizona Fall League / Twitter)...
Arizona Fall League

Top prospects to watch at this year’s Arizona Fall League

One of the most exciting elements of the MLB offseason is the Arizona Fall League, which began its 30th season Monday.
EXPLAINER: 2023 tax credits for EVs will boost their appeal