Pope urges end to death penalty as he arrives in Bahrain

Nov 3, 2022, 8:35 AM | Updated: 11:56 am
Pope Francis and Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa review a honor guard as they meet at the S...

Pope Francis and Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa review a honor guard as they meet at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)

(AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)

AWALI, Bahrain (AP) — Pope Francis urged Bahrain authorities on Thursday to renounce the death penalty and ensure basic human rights are guaranteed for all citizens as he arrived in the Sunni-led kingdom that has been accused by rights groups of systematic discrimination against its Shiite majority.

With King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa by his side, Francis also urged the Arab Gulf nation to ensure “safe and dignified” working conditions for its immigrant laborers, who have long faced abuse and exploitation in the island’s construction, oil extraction and domestic service industries.

While diplomatic, Francis didn’t shy from some of the contentious social issues in Bahrain at the start of his four-day visit to participate in a government-sponsored interfaith conference on East-West dialogue and minister to the country’s small Catholic community.

The 85-year-old Francis, who has been using a wheelchair for several months because of strained knee ligaments, said he was “in a lot of pain” as he flew to the Gulf. For the first time, he greeted journalists travelling with him seated rather than walking through the plane’s aisle.

Human rights groups and relatives of Shiite activists on death row had urged Francis to use his Bahrain visit to call for an end to capital punishment and to advocate for political dissidents, hundreds of whom have been detained since Bahrain violently crushed the 2011 Arab Spring protests with the help of neighboring Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

In the years since, Bahrain has imprisoned Shiite activists, deported others, stripped hundreds of their citizenship, banned the largest Shiite opposition group and closed down its leading independent newspaper.

Bahrain’s government maintains it respects human rights and freedom of speech. Ahead of the trip, the government told The Associated Press that it has a “zero-tolerance policy towards discrimination, persecution or the promotion of division based on ethnicity, culture or faith.”

Francis referred indirectly to the sectarian strife as he arrived in the desert town of Awali and met with Al Khalifa at the Sakhir royal palace in the first-ever papal visit to Bahrain. Speaking to government authorities and diplomats from the palace’s glistening courtyard, Francis praised Bahrain’s tradition of tolerance and cited Bahrain’s constitution, which forbids discrimination on the basis of religion, as a stated commitment that needs to be put into practice.

Doing so, he said, would guarantee “that equal dignity and equal opportunities will be concretely recognized for each group and for every individual; that no forms of discrimination exist and that fundamental human rights are not violated but promoted.”

Referring to the death penalty, Francis said the government must guarantee first and foremost the right to life, and “the need to guarantee that right always, including for those being punished, whose lives should not be taken.”

According to the Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy, Bahrain in 2017 ended a de-facto moratorium on the death penalty and has executed six prisoners since. The group and Human Rights Watch have documented a “dramatic increase” in the number of death sentences being handed down since 2011, with 26 people currently on death row, half for political activities. The groups have said some were convicted after “manifestly unfair trials based solely or primarily on confession allegedly coerced through torture and ill-treatment.”

In the run-up to the visit, the Bahrain rights group released a letter from relatives of some of those death row inmates, begging Francis to raise the issue and to visit the Jau prison where many political detainees are held.

“Our family members remain behind bars and at risk of execution despite the clear injustice of their convictions,” read the letter.

Francis has changed Catholic Church teaching to declare the death penalty inadmissible in all cases. He has regularly visited inmates during his foreign trips, but no such prison visit is planned in Bahrain. Francis has also repeatedly called for dignified wages and working conditions for laborers worldwide, and he repeated that call upon arrival in Bahrain.

Francis recalled that Bahrain had one of the highest levels of immigration in the world, with around half of the population foreign workers, but that much labor was “dehumanizing.”

“Let’s guarantee that working conditions everywhere are safe and dignified,” Francis said. He urged Bahrain to be a “beacon through the region for the promotion of equal rights and improved conditions for workers, women and young people, while at the same time ensuring respect and concern for all those who feel most at the margins of society, such as immigrants and prisoners.”

Bahrain, like other Gulf Arab states, relies on laborers from Asian nations like India and Pakistan who can face dire conditions for little pay. While Bahrain and others have made labor reforms after facing international pressure, some workers still find themselves mistreated by their employers or denied salaries due to them.

Al Khalifa, for his part, praised Francis’ efforts to promote interfaith fraternity and said Bahrain was committed to a similar goal of a world “where tolerance prevails while striving for peace and rejects whatever divides its unity.”

Francis is expected to address migrant workers directly when he meets with the country’s Catholic community, which numbers around 80,000 in a country of around 1.5 million. Most are workers hailing from the Philippines and India, though trip organizers expect pilgrims from Saudi Arabia and other neighboring countries will attend Francis’ big Mass at the national stadium on Saturday.

Bahrain is home to the Gulf’s oldest Catholic Church, the Sacred Heart parish, which opened in 1939, as well as its biggest one, Our Lady of Arabia Cathedral. With a capacity of 2,300, the cathedral opened last year in Awali on land gifted to the church by the king.

Francis will visit both churches during his visit and is likely to thank the king for the tolerance the government has long shown Christians, particularly when compared to neighboring Saudi Arabia, where Christians cannot openly practice their faith.

“Religious liberty inside Bahrain is perhaps the best in the Arab world,” said Bishop Paul Hinder, the apostolic administrator for Bahrain and other Gulf countries. “Even if everything isn’t ideal, there can be conversions (to Christianity), which aren’t at least officially punished like in other countries.”

___

Associated Press religion coverage receives support through the AP’s collaboration with The Conversation US, with funding from Lilly Endowment Inc. The AP is solely responsible for this content.

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              Pope Francis and Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa review a honor guard as they meet at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis and Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa meet at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
            
              Pope Francis meets authorities upon his arrival al at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, for a meeting with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis arrives at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, to meet Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
            
              Pope Francis is flanked by Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he arrives at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace after talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis, flanked by Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, right, and Bahrain's Prince Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa, left, delivers his speech during their meeting at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
            
              Pope Francis arrives at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, to meet Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
            
              Pope Francis talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis and Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa review a honor guard as they meet at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis and Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa meet at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
            
              Pope Francis meets authorities upon his arrival al at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, for a meeting with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis arrives at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, to meet Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
            
              Pope Francis is flanked by Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he arrives at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace after talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis, flanked by Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, right, and Bahrain's Prince Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa, left, delivers his speech during their meeting at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
            
              Pope Francis arrives at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, to meet Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
            
              Pope Francis talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis greets the journalists onboard the papal plane on the occasion of his four-day pastoral visit to Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (Marco Bertorello/Pool Photo via AP)
            
              Pope Francis arrives at Rome's Leonardo Da Vinci International airport in Fiumicino, Italy, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022, to board his flight to Bahrain. Francis is starting a four-day pastoral visit to Bahrain. (AP Photo/Domenico Stinellis)
            
              Pope Francis arrives at Rome's Leonardo Da Vinci International airport in Fiumicino, Italy, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022, to board his flight to Bahrain. Francis is starting a four-day pastoral visit to Bahrain. (AP Photo/Domenico Stinellis)
            
              Pope Francis arrives at Rome's Leonardo Da Vinci International airport in Fiumicino, Italy, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022, to board his flight to Bahrain. Francis is starting a four-day pastoral visit to Bahrain. (AP Photo/Domenico Stinellis)
            
              Pope Francis greets the journalists onboard the papal plane on the occasion of his four-day pastoral visit to Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (Marco Bertorello/Pool Photo via AP)
            
              Pope Francis is greeted by Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he arrives at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis, flanked by Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, delivers his speech as they meet at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              A portrait of Pope Francis is displayed as preparations are made for the papal visit at the Sacred Heart Church in Manama, Bahrain, Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
            
              A couple passes portraits of Pope Francis at Sacred Heart church in Manama, Bahrain, Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2022. Pope Francis is making the Nov. 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
            
              Pope Francis boards his flight to Bahrain at Rome's Leonardo Da Vinci International airport in Fiumicino, Italy, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Francis is starting a four-day pastoral visit to Bahrain. (AP Photo/Domenico Stinellis)
            
              Pope Francis, second from left, is greeted by Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, second from right, as they meet at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis talks with Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he leaves the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis and Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa review a honor guard as they meet at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            
              Pope Francis is greeted by Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa as he arrives at the Sakhir Royal Palace, Bahrain, Thursday, Nov. 3, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Alessandra Tarantino)
            A Bahraini man watches workers preparing a stadium where the Pope Francis will attend a Mass, in Manama, Bahrain, Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla) A Bahraini man, passes in front of a poster that shows Pope Francis outside the Cathedral of Our Lady of Arabia, in Manama, Bahrain, Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla) An Emirati journalist takes pictures by his mobile phone inside the Cathedral of Our Lady of Arabia where the Pope Francis will attend a Mass, in Manama, Bahrain, Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla) Workers carry chairs to be set at a stadium where the Pope Francis will attend a Mass, in Manama, Bahrain, Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla) A woman speaks on her mobile phone, as she stands in front of a portrait of Pope Francis,  at Sacred Heart church, in Manama, Bahrain, Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2022. Pope Francis is making the November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla) A priest takes pictures of Pope Francis posters outside the Sacred Heart Church ahead of the papal visit in Manama, Bahrain, Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2022. Pope Francis is making a November 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla) A woman speaks on her mobile phone as she stands in front of posters that shows the Pope Francis, at Sacred Heart church in Manama, Bahrain, Wednesday, Nov. 2, 2022. Pope Francis is making the Nov. 3-6 visit to participate in a government-sponsored conference on East-West dialogue and to minister to Bahrain's tiny Catholic community, part of his effort to pursue dialogue with the Muslim world. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla) 
              FILE - Pope Francis, right, is presented with a scale model of the building project of the biggest Catholic church in the Gulf region, by Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa during a private audience at the Vatican, Monday, May 19, 2014. Pope Francis is making the first-ever papal trip to Bahrain between Nov. 3-6, 2022, sparking calls from the country’s majority Shiite opposition and human rights activists for the pontiff to raise human rights concerns in the small island nation. (AP Photo/Claudio Peri, Pool, File)

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Pope urges end to death penalty as he arrives in Bahrain